DC Comics timelines, part 1: Golden Age/Earth-2

iPad and newspaper

Updated on December 10, 2021

While there’ve been some minor modifications (such as the various Superman origin story re-tellings in the past decade alone), overall there’s four major timelines (or universes) as far as I’m concerned: the Golden Age (or “Earth-2”); the Silver/Bronze Age (“Earth-1”); Post-Crisis (as in “Crisis on Infinite Earths”); and the current “New 52” books.

I’ll start things off with the Golden Age timeline, plus the introduction of Earth-2 and the multiverse.


Action Comics #484
“Action Comics” #484 (June 1978). Art by Jose Luis Garcia-Lopez.

The Golden Age proper ran from Superman’s debut in 1938’s “Action Comics” #1 through the early-to-mid 1950s. Continuity wasn’t much of a concern for the most part, nor were issues such as aging of characters, etc.

The occasional book referred back to a previous story, and some changes gradually came about over time. One example is the name of Clark Kent’s newspaper changing from the “Daily Star” to the “Daily Planet.” However, for the most part, comic books of the day lacked newspaper comic strips’ often-lengthy ongoing storylines.

Perhaps the above was a result of everyone getting newspapers on a daily basis, but not guaranteed to buy or even find comic books regularly? Or the higher stature regarded newspaper comic strips (over comic books) during the Golden Age? Or that comic strips are usually done by a single writer, versus the “writing-by-committee” nature of mainstream comic books?

Still, it seemed the attitude toward comic books and their characters was more in line with Bugs Bunny (“just a cartoon,” episodic done-in-one-issue stories) than, say, their comic strip counterparts (“Dick Tracy,” “Little Orphan Annie,” etc.), aside from nobody aging, of course.

The introduction of the multiverse and Earth-2

Years later, after the establishment of DC’s multiverse in the sixties, it was retroactively established that almost all of their Golden Age stories took place on “Earth-2,” as opposed to the then-modern universe of “Earth-1.”

On top of this, earlier versions of various location/character names were assigned as being the Earth-2 versions. Thus, the Earth-2 Lois Lane worked for the “Daily Star,” not the “Daily Planet,” while the Earth-2 Batman’s butler was named “Alfred Beagle,” not “Alfred Pennyworth.” It’s generally assumed the shift to Earth-1 from Earth-2 retroactively occurred gradually over the course of stories during the 50s.

I’d recommend the website Mikes’s Amazing World of DC Comics. The site offers an analysis of when the shift from Earth-2 to Earth-1 might’ve happened for various characters.

Basic timeline of Earth-2

America vs. the Justice Society
“America vs. the Justice Society” (January 1985). Art by Jerry Ordway.

Still, for this article’s purposes, the biggest aspect of Earth-2 is that it was declared to have largely took place in real time. Comics moving in real time are a rarity. “For Better or For Worse” is one strip that moved in real time during its original run, while “Doonesbury” also largely has moved in real time since the 80s.

The advantage of real time is that it matches up with normal, real-world expectations. Flashing back to, say, 1978 for us is the same as it was for the “For Better or For Worse” (or original Earth-2) casts. Also like “For Better or For Worse,” this gave us Earth-2’s other popular trait. The characters were allowed to fully live out their lives, including visibly aging, dying, or getting married. They also had children, who also grew up/aged in real time. Flashbacks to earlier events on Earth-2 usually took real time into account. Earth-2’s Clark was shown having grown up in the 1920s and early 30s.

Besides the original Golden Age comics, other major events of Earth-2 included:

  • The JSA’s retirement (due to McCarthyism) in 1951, coinciding with their final published appearance.
  • The 1950s wedding of Earth-2’s Superman and Lois Lane.
  • The 1950s wedding of Earth-2’s Batman and Catwoman.
  • The JSA coming out of retirement in the early 1960s.
  • The debuts of the Huntress and Power Girl in the late 70s.
  • Retroactively, the 80s series “All Star Squadron” took place alongside the Golden Age comics.

Since Earth-2 moved in real time, starting with Superman’s 1938 debut, its timeline is the longest out of the four DC ones, stretching 48 years by the time “Crisis on Infinite Earths” finished up in 1986.

Pros and Cons

The advantages of “real time” have been outlined above. The main disadvantage of real time, however, is marketability, especially if a character were to go on to become popular. In mainstream pop culture, “youth sells,” and cartoon characters not usually aging is seen as one of their biggest assets.

While this isn’t a concern for Earth-2 (since its Superman, Wonder Woman, etc. aren’t the “main” versions of the DC characters), it does see this handling of aging/timelines kept from being more widely used in pop cultural fiction set in the present, versus period pieces.

Marketability’s a big reason the newly-revamped “Earth 2” in the New 52 reboot de-aged the Golden Age heroes into their twenties. The reboot also cut off their ties to historical events like World War II.

Next time: DC’s move to a “sliding timeline” starting with Earth-1 (and the Silver/Bronze Age).

(Updated 10/27/16)

Anthony Dean

Anthony Dean is the owner of Diverse Tech Geek and Diverse Media Notes.

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