Google’s been adding more and more features to its Chrome OS for Chromebooks, in order to bring it more on par with conventional laptops. The latest feature to be added: MTP (Media Transfer Protocol) support for Android devices. Simply plug in your Android device, and you can copy files from said device to your Chromebook. More details on this OMG Chrome article.
Unfortunately, write support to Android devices isn’t supported at this time, so no creating folders on/copying files to Android devices. It’s also rolling out for Chromebooks only at this point; however, support for Chromeboxes is planned for the future. But at least it’s a way to transfer files without transferring via the cloud first.
What files I’ve transferred to/from my Chromebook was done using a USB drive or cloud storage via Google Drive, the former for larger files (such as movies). I suppose if I only have my Nexus 4 phone and not a thumb drive, the feature will be somewhat useful.